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Tracing around a polygon

draw12 trace1 snap2 vector66 topology2

Example of setting up a draw interaction to easily snap to an existing feature.

This example showcases how the draw interaction API can be set up to make snapping along an existing geometry easier while preserving topology, which is sometimes called "tracing". When the user clicks on two different points on the Idaho state border, the part of the border comprised between these two points is added to the currently drawn feature. This leverages the appendCoordinates method of the ol/interaction/Draw interaction.

main.js
import 'ol/ol.css';
import Draw from 'ol/interaction/Draw';
import Feature from 'ol/Feature';
import Fill from 'ol/style/Fill';
import GeoJSON from 'ol/format/GeoJSON';
import LineString from 'ol/geom/LineString';
import Map from 'ol/Map';
import Snap from 'ol/interaction/Snap';
import Stroke from 'ol/style/Stroke';
import Style from 'ol/style/Style';
import View from 'ol/View';
import {OSM, Vector as VectorSource} from 'ol/source';
import {Tile as TileLayer, Vector as VectorLayer} from 'ol/layer';

// math utilities

// coordinates; will return the length of the [a, b] segment
function length(a, b) {
  return Math.sqrt(
    (b[0] - a[0]) * (b[0] - a[0]) + (b[1] - a[1]) * (b[1] - a[1])
  );
}

// coordinates; will return true if c is on the [a, b] segment
function isOnSegment(c, a, b) {
  const lengthAc = length(a, c);
  const lengthAb = length(a, b);
  const dot =
    ((c[0] - a[0]) * (b[0] - a[0]) + (c[1] - a[1]) * (b[1] - a[1])) / lengthAb;
  return Math.abs(lengthAc - dot) < 1e-6 && lengthAc < lengthAb;
}

// modulo for negative values, eg: mod(-1, 4) returns 3
function mod(a, b) {
  return ((a % b) + b) % b;
}

// returns a coordinates array which contains the segments of the feature's
// outer ring between the start and end points
// Note: this assumes the base feature is a single polygon
function getPartialRingCoords(feature, startPoint, endPoint) {
  let polygon = feature.getGeometry();
  if (polygon.getType() === 'MultiPolygon') {
    polygon = polygon.getPolygon(0);
  }
  const ringCoords = polygon.getLinearRing().getCoordinates();

  let i,
    pointA,
    pointB,
    startSegmentIndex = -1;
  for (i = 0; i < ringCoords.length; i++) {
    pointA = ringCoords[i];
    pointB = ringCoords[mod(i + 1, ringCoords.length)];

    // check if this is the start segment dot product
    if (isOnSegment(startPoint, pointA, pointB)) {
      startSegmentIndex = i;
      break;
    }
  }

  const cwCoordinates = [];
  let cwLength = 0;
  const ccwCoordinates = [];
  let ccwLength = 0;

  // build clockwise coordinates
  for (i = 0; i < ringCoords.length; i++) {
    pointA =
      i === 0
        ? startPoint
        : ringCoords[mod(i + startSegmentIndex, ringCoords.length)];
    pointB = ringCoords[mod(i + startSegmentIndex + 1, ringCoords.length)];
    cwCoordinates.push(pointA);

    if (isOnSegment(endPoint, pointA, pointB)) {
      cwCoordinates.push(endPoint);
      cwLength += length(pointA, endPoint);
      break;
    } else {
      cwLength += length(pointA, pointB);
    }
  }

  // build counter-clockwise coordinates
  for (i = 0; i < ringCoords.length; i++) {
    pointA = ringCoords[mod(startSegmentIndex - i, ringCoords.length)];
    pointB =
      i === 0
        ? startPoint
        : ringCoords[mod(startSegmentIndex - i + 1, ringCoords.length)];
    ccwCoordinates.push(pointB);

    if (isOnSegment(endPoint, pointA, pointB)) {
      ccwCoordinates.push(endPoint);
      ccwLength += length(endPoint, pointB);
      break;
    } else {
      ccwLength += length(pointA, pointB);
    }
  }

  // keep the shortest path
  return ccwLength < cwLength ? ccwCoordinates : cwCoordinates;
}

// layers definition

const raster = new TileLayer({
  source: new OSM(),
});

// features in this layer will be snapped to
const baseVector = new VectorLayer({
  source: new VectorSource({
    format: new GeoJSON(),
    url: "https://ahocevar.com/geoserver/wfs?service=wfs&request=getfeature&typename=topp:states&cql_filter=STATE_NAME='Idaho'&outputformat=application/json",
  }),
});

// this is were the drawn features go
const drawVector = new VectorLayer({
  source: new VectorSource(),
  style: new Style({
    stroke: new Stroke({
      color: 'rgba(100, 255, 0, 1)',
      width: 2,
    }),
    fill: new Fill({
      color: 'rgba(100, 255, 0, 0.3)',
    }),
  }),
});

// this line only appears when we're tracing a feature outer ring
const previewLine = new Feature({
  geometry: new LineString([]),
});
const previewVector = new VectorLayer({
  source: new VectorSource({
    features: [previewLine],
  }),
  style: new Style({
    stroke: new Stroke({
      color: 'rgba(255, 0, 0, 1)',
      width: 2,
    }),
  }),
});

const map = new Map({
  layers: [raster, baseVector, drawVector, previewVector],
  target: 'map',
  view: new View({
    center: [-12986427, 5678422],
    zoom: 5,
  }),
});

let drawInteraction, tracingFeature, startPoint, endPoint;
let drawing = false;

const getFeatureOptions = {
  hitTolerance: 10,
  layerFilter: (layer) => {
    return layer === baseVector;
  },
};

// the click event is used to start/end tracing around a feature
map.on('click', (event) => {
  if (!drawing) {
    return;
  }

  let hit = false;
  map.forEachFeatureAtPixel(
    event.pixel,
    (feature) => {
      if (tracingFeature && feature !== tracingFeature) {
        return;
      }

      hit = true;
      const coord = map.getCoordinateFromPixel(event.pixel);

      // second click on the tracing feature: append the ring coordinates
      if (feature === tracingFeature) {
        endPoint = tracingFeature.getGeometry().getClosestPoint(coord);
        const appendCoords = getPartialRingCoords(
          tracingFeature,
          startPoint,
          endPoint
        );
        drawInteraction.removeLastPoint();
        drawInteraction.appendCoordinates(appendCoords);
        tracingFeature = null;
      }

      // start tracing on the feature ring
      tracingFeature = feature;
      startPoint = tracingFeature.getGeometry().getClosestPoint(coord);
    },
    getFeatureOptions
  );

  if (!hit) {
    // clear current tracing feature & preview
    previewLine.getGeometry().setCoordinates([]);
    tracingFeature = null;
  }
});

// the pointermove event is used to show a preview of the result of the tracing
map.on('pointermove', (event) => {
  if (tracingFeature && drawing) {
    let coord = null;
    map.forEachFeatureAtPixel(
      event.pixel,
      (feature) => {
        if (tracingFeature === feature) {
          coord = map.getCoordinateFromPixel(event.pixel);
        }
      },
      getFeatureOptions
    );

    let previewCoords = [];
    if (coord) {
      endPoint = tracingFeature.getGeometry().getClosestPoint(coord);
      previewCoords = getPartialRingCoords(
        tracingFeature,
        startPoint,
        endPoint
      );
    }
    previewLine.getGeometry().setCoordinates(previewCoords);
  }
});

const snapInteraction = new Snap({
  source: baseVector.getSource(),
});

const typeSelect = document.getElementById('type');

function addInteraction() {
  const value = typeSelect.value;
  if (value !== 'None') {
    drawInteraction = new Draw({
      source: drawVector.getSource(),
      type: typeSelect.value,
    });
    drawInteraction.on('drawstart', () => {
      drawing = true;
    });
    drawInteraction.on('drawend', () => {
      drawing = false;
      previewLine.getGeometry().setCoordinates([]);
      tracingFeature = null;
    });
    map.addInteraction(drawInteraction);
    map.addInteraction(snapInteraction);
  }
}

typeSelect.onchange = function () {
  map.removeInteraction(drawInteraction);
  map.removeInteraction(snapInteraction);
  addInteraction();
};
addInteraction();
index.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Tracing around a polygon</title>
    <!-- Pointer events polyfill for old browsers, see https://caniuse.com/#feat=pointer -->
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/elm-pep"></script>
    <!-- The line below is only needed for old environments like Internet Explorer and Android 4.x -->
    <script src="https://cdn.polyfill.io/v3/polyfill.min.js?features=fetch,requestAnimationFrame,Element.prototype.classList,URL,TextDecoder,Number.isInteger"></script>
    <style>
      .map {
        width: 100%;
        height:400px;
      }
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="map" class="map"></div>
    <form class="form-inline">
      <label for="type">Geometry type &nbsp;</label>
      <select id="type">
        <option value="Polygon">Polygon</option>
        <option value="LineString">LineString</option>
        <option value="None">None</option>
      </select>
    </form>
    <script src="main.js"></script>
  </body>
</html>
package.json
{
  "name": "tracing",
  "dependencies": {
    "ol": "6.9.0"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "parcel": "^2.0.0-beta.1"
  },
  "scripts": {
    "start": "parcel index.html",
    "build": "parcel build --public-url . index.html"
  }
}